AVANT-GARDES FROM 1950 TO THE PRESENT. ULTIMATE PART

As I promised here is the Avant-gardes third and ultimate part.

ART AFTER WW2

From the second half of the twentieth century New York replaced Paris in his role as artistic center, being a land where no one has lived the war devastation .
The artwork becomes an object of consumption within the capitalist system, multiplying museums, modern art collections, biennials and exhibitions.

Guggenheim Bilbao

Solomon Guggenheim New York.
There is a limit avalanche currents imprecise engaged each other and in that mix different artistic languages.
The traditional techniques and materials will be displaced, and unconventional media were used as the body itself.
From the 80 there will be a plurality of trends that continues today.
The last quarter century artists introduce themes that reflect concern, globalization, immigration, feminism, the environment …

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM

It takes place during the 40s and 50s in New York.
The automatic will significantly surrealists in abstract expressionism.
Recovers art passion for art. The painting is thus an event, an encounter between the artist and the material used.
It is a gesture painting used in expressive colors and large formats.
The artist is interested in being perceived almost total body involvement in the creative process.
We know two fold: 1. Action Painting (action painting)
2. paint color fields (color field painting)

Pollock action painting

Rothko colour fields painting.

EUROPEAN INFORMALISM

It was in Europe that the United States Abstract Expressionism, although the differences between the two movements are remarkable.
The informalistas felt disillusioned by Western culture, refusing the traditional way of painting.
Although abstraction are attracted sometimes include figurative elements.
Investigated with various materials (sand, plaster, dirt, rocks, etc.). Creating works that were called matéricas.

Dubuffet sculpture

Lucio Muñoz picture.

POP ART

The so-called “popular art” emerged in the decade of the 50 in Britain and the United States as opposed to abstract expressionism that had opened a gulf of misunderstanding between art and viewer.
The Pop recovers figuration to that art can be understood by the public.
They use more elements of everyday consumer society more recognizable by the public on foot: banners, packaging, comic strips, or the faces of the figures in the music world and the world of Hollywood.
Seriation introduced in the art world, this is the same picture is repeated several times in different colors in the same box.

Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein.

NEW FIGURATIVE

In the 60s a number of trends emerge as an alternative to abstract trends prevailing in Europe and the U.S.
These proposals call for rendering realistic images more or less, in each case on the basis of different criteria.
Many of these trends maintain connections with Pop Art
Within this new configuration highlights the work of Francis Bacon. Using isolated deformed figures and claustrophobic interiors, English painter reflected this better than anyone the feeling of uneasiness of his time.


Meanwhile the new French realism is closer to reality through a process of appropriation of elements of the consumer society, recycling, accumulating them, compressing or packing them.
In narrative figuration resort to television, film, advertising and the comic to raise a critical conception of society.
The Hyperrealism point making photography; their representations are to pursue a greater realism to the camera, illusionists and paradoxical recovering procedures.

Gran Vía Antonio López.

NEW ABSTRACT

In the first half of the 60 was developed in the U.S. a current exalted pictorial geometry, crisp lines, hard outlines, expository simplicity and the primacy of color.
Attach more importance to analysis to action or emotion
Employ nontraditional media forms that just determining the compositions.

Morris Louis

OPTIC AND KINETIC ART

• The expression of the movement is the main concern of these two abstract tendencies.
• The works are composed of elements are arranged methodically optical illusion, the cause virtual motion on the retina of the viewer on a flat surface.
•.
• The viewer has an active role in the contemplation of the work.
• kinetic art refers to all works that reflect the different types of motion.
• When considering the two dimensions of insufficient canvas usually make sculptures, installations and mobile materials like aluminum, steel or plastic.
• The OP ART refers to works that are based on optical and visual sensations that are perceived by the human eye.
• The mechanisms used in the aim to generate a sense of virtual movement in the viewer’s retina.

 File:Móvil (Eusebio Sempere) MEAL Madrid 01.jpg
   Eusebio Sempere sculpture, Madrid
  Vasarely picture.
   MINIMAL, POVERA AND LAND ART

These three artistic trends have in common time of onset in the early 60s, and his reaction to the commodification of art.
Minimalism is characterized by extreme simplification from geometric shapes industrial look.
The organic materials used Povera and poor in order to disrupt the viewer’s reflection.
Land Art wants to remove the artwork from the Museum, for transfer to the nature.
Deserts, glaciers, rivers and fields are to support artists remnants of his works, trying that they come alive in the solitude of space.

Sol LeWitt, Mario Merz and Richard Long.

CONCEPTUAL ART

It was a movement that appeared in the mid-60s and remained until well into the 70s.
Is influenced by the Readymades of Marcel Duchamp.
Ideas and concepts are more important than the finished work of art.
It rejects the idea of the art object as a commodity.

Baldessari.

Alberto Corazón.

BODY ART, HAPPENINGS Y PERFORMANCES

They are ephemeral art forms, used by artists of various schools and countries since the 50s.
BODY ART The artist uses her body as an expressive and artistic support, in order to investigate the physical and psychological reactions it has to different stimuli.
The word means HAPPENING event.
In an attempt to relate art and life, the public is actively involved in actions which mixes elements of different languages ​​(music, theater, painting ..)
The PERFORMANCE also combines elements of theater, music and visual arts.
It differs from the Happening where actions are planned, and there is no active public participation.

Gilbert & George Performance artists

Allan Kaprow Happenings maker

POSTMODERN TRENDS AND ART TO XXI CENTURY

From the 80 is in crisis the concept of art, giving way to postmodernism.
It revises and reinterprets the past. Many streams retake the painting as an expressive medium.
Currents arise neo-expressionist figuration that retrieve and subjectivity.
ALEMAN neoexpresionismo
Its members, under some influence romantic and a great sense of nationalism, expressed through violent language.
Italian trans
Its members are like nomads who roam the historic tradition of artistic movements, to take from each what meets their aspirations plastic.
And express their vitality and their own conscience.
BAD PAINTING
In the same vein born this current abstract expressionist influences of artists like Schnabel

Anselm Kiefer

Enzo Cucci

 

Julián Schnabel

. A significant aspect is the rise of photography, which is presented below as the sovereign work instrument in its own right.
. It is also important to emphasize the importance that has taken the art of peripheral sites, in a globalized world (Africa, Latin America, and Asia) breaking the dominance of Western art as well as that done by women.
. In recent years there have been new support for the arts as a result of technological breakthroughs in communication.
. The audiovisual media, computer, and Internet have made alternative ways of expression that are reflected in the new forms of art.

Liu Jianhua

George Baselitz

Luis Gordillo.

A complex, multifaceted and exciting reality in the nowadays art. Hope you enjoy!

 

 

HISTORICAL AVANT-GARDES, SECOND PART

Are the many artistic movements and “isms” that occur at a rapid pace during the first third of the twentieth century until the outbreak of the World War.

The art center of gravity is in Europe, especially in Paris, focusing too in Germany and Russia.

The artists want placed outside the established, refusing to do traditional figurative art.

They share a desire experimental and innovative and reject any obstacle to your creativity.

His focus as found in 1. primitive, archaic and savage (carvings from Africa and Oceania)

2. Artistic expression of children and fools.

Aspiring to make an international art, its size and importance will be Universal.

FAUVISM

It represents a way of painting shared by a group of artists who coincided in France between 1905 and 1907.
The Fauvist color not used descriptively
They express their emotions establishing colorfully contrasts
The lines are very rhythmic and decorative.
They like to represent nature in a cheerful and optimistic

Henry Matisse

 

Benjamín Palencia.

EXPRESSIONISM

• In this avant-garde artists discussed their inner world. The underlying purpose is to express their emotions and moods individual, face an environment that they do not understand and find it hostile.
• His works convey a certain restlessness and anxiety about the world around them, usually linked to historical moments in which half a war.
• The lines are very rhythmic and decorative.
• Emphasizes freedom in the use of colors, sometimes used in very acidic ranges and shrill, and forms, sometimes including distortions and deformations.

Munch:The scream. Kirschnner: Franzie in front of the carved chair.

Utopia, Marc.

CUBISM

• Its creators were Picasso and Braque, who first applied to  the paint, and then spread to sculpture and other artistic languages
• The Cubists not want to imitate nature, but try to reinvent following a mental process and scientific.
• reflect reality from geometric shapes
• They represent different views of objects in the same plane.
• They use a very limited range of colors, form takes precedence over color.
• Eliminate the illusion of depth and abandon the traditional view.

 

Man with Clarinet, Picasso.

Violonchelo, Archipenko.

FUTURISM

It begins in 1909 in Italy with the intention of claiming the future and progress, refusing to do the values ​​of the past.
Les obsessed capture the movement and dynamism. His favorite subjects are the city, industry, factories, new transportation …
They represent different forces in a state of transformation and displacement

dynamism dog leash

Mobile Location graphic. Kupka.

THE ROAD TO ABSTRACTION

Appears in 1910 when the Russian painter Kandinsky to reach their study found that one of his paintings was upside down, and it seemed so much more beautiful and expressive.
Rejects the imitation of external reality.
The art is expressed through colors and shapes pose no issue.
Attach great importance to freedom of expression.
There are two major streams: lyrical abstraction more intuitive and expressive evolved to where many expressionists and surrealists, and geometric abstraction, more analytical and orderly, manifested in the Neo, Russian avant-garde movements and the German Bauhaus school.

Geometric and lyric abstraction, both of Kandinsky.

NEO

It is the name given to the aesthetic of a group together under the name of the magazine De Stijl (The Style), which served to promote this new movement that appeared in the Netherlands in 1917 by Piet Mondrian
The Neo tries to get a new universal order through art.
It is a purely abstract art, which simplifies the most natural forms.
They use regular geometric shapes, straight lines and primary colors.

Mondrian

 

author cabinet, De Stijl.

SUPREMATISM

Born in 1915 in St. Petersburg by the hand of MALEVICH This artist presented a series of abstract paintings which included his black square on a white background, one of the most revolutionary of all contemporary art.
It is a radical abstract movement that deviates completely from reality.
Use simple shapes: square, rectangle, cross, triangle and circle.
They use pure colors and especially black on white and white on white.

Malevich pictures.

CONSTRUCTIVISMO

When moving to the abstract image of the three-dimensional field, TATLIN takes the first steps of constructivism.
It is a movement fully abstract, geometric and functional three-dimensional potential advantage of Suprematism.
They use materials and manufacturing technology.
They want to build a functional art that serves society.

El Lissitzky proun.

AROUND THE ORDER

During the interwar period emerged all over Europe a series of streams linked to a more or less realistic figuration.
Reality constructed through a personal vision, regaining the lead elements had left.
Three current members of these postulates: Metaphysical painting, which developed in Italy with Giorgio de Chirico, Carlo Carra and Giorgio Moandi most representative artists., The New Objectivity, which was developed in Germany, and whose leading representatives are Otto Dix, George Grosz and Max Beckmann, and thirdly the School of Paris which includes several artists from different nationalities and agreed Montparnasse, as Soutine, Chagall and Modigliani, who created his personal style.

 

 

Metrópolis Grosz.

DADA

Born in full World War in a neutral city: Zurich, specifically in the Cabaret Voltaire, instead of artistic and literary evenings. Among those attending was the Romanian Tristan Tzara.
More than an art movement is a vital attitude dominated by rebellion and scandal. His spirit is based on the denial of almost everything, especially the bourgeois tradition and even art itself.
Support the provocation, absurdity and denial of almost all
Defend freedom and chance in the creative process.
Demystify the art, giving artistic significance to objects that were not before, as in the case of Marcel Duchamp, who brings a urinal in a public restroom and place it in a museum.

 

Duschamp urinary

Psychiatrist Schwitters.

SURREALISM

Its leader is Andre Breton, who writes the two manifestos of Surrealism in 1924 and 1930. In his theory had much to do the theories of psychoanalysis and dream interpretation of Freud.
It is a figurative style that explores the world of dreams and the subconscious.
They employ the technique of psychic automatism, which is being carried away by irrational stimuli without using logic.

Magritte

 

Dalí.

And tomorrow we´ll see the third part of the avantgardes adventure. Hope you enjoy, see you soon!